This post also appears as a guest blog on the COAStNet website. COAStNet is a network of undergraduate students, graduate students, and coastal researchers who are studying, or have studied, ocean science at Canadian institutions. Their mission is to unite Canadian students and scientists in a network to enhance the communication of ocean research and to promote evidence-based ocean policy that ensures healthy and sustainable oceans. You can find them online, on Facebook, or on Twitter.
It was 2007, and my significant other at the time proposed that I join the most recent online fad – Facebook. As a studious second-year undergraduate and an avoider of online chatter, I vehemently declined. Though I was not immediately interested, I began to observe the ways in which she was using Facebook. Seeing her connect with old friends who had moved away, chatting with family who lived on the other side of the country, and discovering online material that may have otherwise taken hours to find, I began to see the immediate benefits of this new online tool. It wasn’t until much later during my Ph.D. research, however, that I began to see (and reap) the academic benefits of social media.
Though it has greatly enhanced communication among the general public, social media can also be of great benefit to specific groups of individuals, including scientists. Although they are numerous, many social media platforms offer benefits that, as collective, scientists are often seeking out in other ways. Networking, collaboration, education, public outreach, research impact – social media can provide researchers and educators with a plethora of opportunities that otherwise may be time consuming to simply get off the ground.
Indeed social media has allowed me to publish collaborative papers with international ecologists, engage in public outreach and education, establish networks that I otherwise may not have been able to, and substantially enhance my academic CV. So how exactly can social media benefit scientists and like-minded professionals and which platforms are most useful?
A critical aspect of academia is networking with your peers. Connecting with peers who share similar research interests can lead to collaboration, new and exciting projects, and can ultimately enhance a researcher’s scientific impact. However, academic networking is often limited to within-department networking, annual conferences/meetings, or through invited lectures and seminars. With the advent of social media, academic networking has been greatly enhanced.
Many social media platforms provide an informal arena for scientists to discuss their research and build their network. In addition, social media provides an easy and fast way to find like-minded researchers. For example, the use of hashtags on Twitter can allow a user to follow a particular topic and find other Twitter users who are engaged in similar discussions. Given the large and growing scientific community on Twitter, this provides a quick and easy-to-use way of finding and reaching out to academics with similar research interests.
Finally, many social media platforms are now used by entire labs, with PIs, students, and interns all contributing to the lab’s social media page(s). This provides a great communication platform for undergraduate and graduate students seeking positions to chat with lab members and get a feel for whether or not the lab dynamics and research suit their needs.
As mentioned above, academic networking can often be limited to short periods of time spaced far apart, which can make collaboration difficult. Searching institutional websites and highlighting individual researchers for potential collaboration can also be time consuming for researchers and often gets pushed aside as a result. Furthermore, graduate students don’t often get opportunities for international collaboration due to financial constraints and a lack of an established reputation within their fields.
One of the biggest academic benefits of social media is that it offers a fast and convenient way to build international collaborations and expand scientific research. This allows not only established researchers to expand their research, but can also allow keen graduate students to engage in collaborative research projects (whether they be international, national, or local), gain additional publications, and substantially enhance their academic CVs.
Education and public outreach
Academics and scientists share a common responsibility to educate. Designing and delivering courses, giving public lectures, and reaching out to various public groups is critical for enhancing the scientific literacy of those around us who do not directly engage in the faculty of science. However, the aforementioned duties of researchers can be extremely time consuming, which can limit the ability of scientists to educate to the fullest extent possible.
With its massive outreach potential (Figure 1), social media can serve as a fantastic public outreach and educational tool. For example, David Shiffman, a Ph.D. student at the University of Miami has used Twitter and Facebook to spread education and awareness about sharks to an astounding number of social media users (>5,000 Facebook followers; >20,700 Twitter followers). Furthermore, social media platforms can be used to increase engagement in the classroom. Given the familiarity that today’s students have with platforms like Facebook, students may be more likely to engage with and share additional material through social media outlets rather than traditional classroom platforms such as email or classroom management tools (Clements, unpublished data).
The ways in which academics and researchers are evaluated are limited and, in some ways, flawed. Scientists are often assessed on the number and the quality of their research publications. Given that quality is often gaged by journal prestige (which is most often a product of impact factor, which comes with its own variety of flaws), additional ways of measuring scientific impact are always welcome (of course, within logical reason).
Recently, social media has been established as a metric for scientific impact. Termed “altmetrics”, a variety of statistics surrounding peer-reviewed publications that appear on social media can be extracted and used to gauge the online impact of a given publication and, in turn, its authors. Indeed many journals now include an altmetric section for published articles, including the prestigious journal Nature (among numerous others; Figure 2) Furthermore, social media platforms designed specifically for scientists, such as ResearchGate, have developed their own algorithm to derive a single metric of scholarly impact for an individual researcher within the ResearchGate community. Though these metrics do come with their own set of problems and limitations, they also highlight the ways in which scholars can utilize social media to enhance their scholarly impact and outreach within and outside of the academic community.
Though many social media platforms exist (see here for an exhaustive list), some are better suited for scientists and academics than others. Furthermore, the variety of needs that individual researchers may want social media to aid in can be optimized by using certain platforms. Though not exhaustive by any means, a list of social media sites commonly used by researchers (from Van Noorden 2014), along with their optimal use, is provided below:
Facebook is one of the most common social media sites and is often credited with initiating the social media revolution. Though it does not necessarily make networking or collaborating much easier for a researcher (Facebook has implemented hashtags, but they are not commonly used), it is a tool that can optimize public outreach and communication (though some studies suggest it is not suitable for this purpose; e.g. Fauville et al. 2014). In addition, Facebook groups can serve as a classroom tool for individual courses and can greatly enhance the engagement of undergraduate students (Clements, unpublished data).
Like Facebook, Twitter is an extremely popular social media site with an enormous amount of followers (Figure 1). However, Twitter offers some additional benefits for academics that Facebook does not. Alongside public outreach and education, Twitter utilizes the hashtag to link users to common topics being discussed within the Twitter community. Given the large and continually growing scientific community on Twitter, following hashtags related to your research can allow for extensive networking and collaboration. Furthermore, the large numbers of users coupled with the fact that tweets must be short and to-the-point (140 characters or less) make it a very efficient and useful tool for public outreach and education.
Acting as a platform for professionals, LinkedIn allows researchers to connect with other professionals to increase networking and potentially lead to collaboration. However, LinkedIn is likely better suited for researchers looking to hire employees or graduate students, as individual profiles essentially serve as CVs. On the flip-side, graduate students and employees can use this social media platform to connect with researchers that they may be interested in working with.
A great site for displaying and sharing work, Academia.edu allows researchers to share their publications with the academic community and follow like-minded researchers. This platform is great for sharing work with others and building academic connections, but is not overly useful for public outreach or finding graduate students (researchers).
The most used social media site by scientists (Van Noorden 2014), ResearchGate acts much in the same way as Academia.edu. ResearchGate allows researchers to upload and share their publications and network with other similar researchers. Furthermore, you can upload research before it is published, which can help to expedite the communication of scientific knowledge/research and provide a basis for additional peer-review. Students can also join the ResearchGate community to find publications and network with researchers.
The real uniqueness of ResearchGate, however, lies in its novel approach to quantifying scholarly impact. Unlike the h-index or other metrics of impact, the “RG Score” takes into account various aspects of a researcher’s work and uses them to represent that researcher’s academic impact. The fault in this, however, is that it is biased toward researchers that are actively engaged in the ResearchGate community, and individual RG Scores can become inflated fairly easily (for example, my RG Score is higher than my PhD supervisor’s, yet I haven’t finished my PhD).
Though the RG Score may be flawed, the collaborative nature of ResearchGate is of great benefit to researchers at all levels of their career. For example, I have personally established an international collaboration with Iranian ecologists working in the Caspian Sea, which has led to two publications in well-known journals.
Other social media sites promoted directly at scientists include Mendeley, a site much like ResearchGate, and FigShare, a fantastic site where researchers can openly share data which is published on the FigShare site with full attribution to the researcher(s) who publish their data there (indeed the use of the data must be accompanied by a citation).
Along with the descriptions above, Van Noorden (2014) outlines the ways in which scientists use social media. The already-large and continually growing scientific presence on social media is a testament to its utility within the scientific community. However, being careful to not let such platforms dominate your time is an important aspect to consider when contemplating joining social media as a researcher or lab group. As such, strategically choosing a few platforms to best suit your research needs is key to establishing a solid social media presence while not substantially decreasing productivity or academic output.
Aside from individual researchers, scientific societies and organizations can benefit from using social media. Many coastal organizations (e.g. CERF, NOAA) utilize social media to connect with their members and, more importantly, recruit new members. Social media can also serve well in the promotion of an organization’s events, such as conferences or meetings. Contests and special events being held by organizations can also be promoted through social media – a great example of this was the 2014 NOAA photo contest.
Ultimately, it is up to the researcher to decide which social media platform suits him/her best. Social media can be of great benefit to scientists, but needs to be utilized appropriately in order to maximize its utility for individual researchers. If these aspects are taken into account, social media can serve academics and like-minded professionals very well, acting to enhance their careers and scholarly impact in a variety of ways.
Van Noordern, R. 2014. Online collaboration: scientists and the social network. Nature 512: 126-129.
Fauville, G., Dupont, S., von Thun, S., and Lundin, J. 2015. Can Facebook be used to increase scientific literacy? A case study of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Facebook page and ocean literacy. Computers & Education 82: 60-73.