The year was 2011, and Rob Saunders, CEO of Island Scallops, had some grim news to report from his scallop hatchery in Qualicum Bay, BC – every scallop the company had put in the water over the past 3 years had died. The likely culprit? – ocean acidification (OA). Seawater pH levels reaching 7.2 had been reported from the area, where typical seawater hovers around a pH of 8. Consequently, Island Scallops was forced to dramatically scale back production, shutting down its processing plant and laying off 1/3 of its employees.
Although often considered a future problem, OA is already impacting coastal systems on the Pacific coast of North America. Aside from the shellfish crises in the Northwest United States, and British Columbia, Feely et al. (2008) reported undersaturated seawater (with respect to aragonite; a mineral form of calcium carbonate) upwelling along the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of North America from Canada to Mexico. More recently, it has been suggested that these chemical changes in the same area are already resulting in negative biological implications at the base of the food web (Bednaršek et al. 2014). As a result of these immediate threats of OA, various committees and national projects have been formed to address and monitor OA in the United States, such as the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (NOAA OAP), while documents outlining strategic plans for research, monitoring, and tackling the problem of OA in the US have been published in recent years (e.g. OCBP 2009, NRC 2010, IWGOA 2014) (Europe is also leading the way in this area, but I will stick to North America for the purposes of this post; for a glimpse at the European Project on Ocean Acidification, EPOCA, see here). In fact, the United States federal government, through NOAA initiatives, has a total of 16 buoys/moorings monitoring OA in their national waters (10 on the Pacific coast, 6 on the Atlantic coast) (Figure 1).
While the US Federal government appears to be sufficiently concerned about OA, the Canadian Federal government seems much more disinterested. In their 2012 State of the Oceans report, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) reported that, due to its age, Pacific sub-surface water already contains a high concentration of CO2 and periodic episodes of undersaturated (pH<7.7) surface waters already occur on the Pacific coast of Canada (DFO 2012). In the report, DFO also stated that on the Atlantic coast of Canada, bottom waters in the St. Lawrence Estuary have dropped 0.2-0.3 units over the past 70 years (in comparison to the global average decrease of 0.1 units) resulting in biological implications for bottom-dwelling animals, and suggested that water from Arctic outflow moving through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is bringing more acidic waters to the east coast of Canada, potentially making it more susceptible to future changes (DFO 2012). Although the report clearly outlines that ocean acidification is already a problem on both Canadian coasts and suggests that future conditions will get worse, the Canadian Federal government is doing very little to address OA in Canada, simply stating in the report that “Continued scientific research into ocean acidification is necessary to identify its impacts and drivers, which vary by location, with a view to developing a coherent response to the issue”. While 16 buoys are monitoring OA in US waters, Canada has a total of 1 (Pacific coast), which is itself a collaborative project with NOAA in the US (Figure 1). Canada has, however, been involved in the AMAP project which has contributed to monitoring Arctic OA, but the only other governmental OA research program in Canada is just getting off of the ground at a DFO lab in St. Andrews, New Brunswick; however, this program is very primitive and requires much more time, effort, and funding to appropriately establish an OA monitoring program on Canada’s east coast. When it comes to policy, OA isn’t even on the radar in Canada. Although, the President of the United States committed to protecting marine ecosystems of the US and tackling the problem of OA in June of 2014 (not to mention the myriad regional initiatives aimed at addressing the problem in the United States), the Canadian government has yet to mention the prospect of trying to mitigate the implications of OA in our country. While the United States have multiple, detailed documents outlining OA and potential adaptation strategies, the latest formal report outlining Canada’s action on climate change designates less than a page to OA (Warren & Lemmen 2014). Furthermore, although the Canadian government is abundantly proud of its ecoENERGY program (i.e., investing money into oil and natural gas exploration), the ecoACTION program (i.e., actively taking action against ecological problems such as climate change and ocean acidification) has been dismantled. Finally, although government agencies such as NOAA in the US and EPOCA in Europe have devoted a substantial amount of time into public outreach and education, government scientists studying OA in Canada are still struggling to speak outside of their offices.
For the past decade or more, OA has been on the radars of scientists around the world. With its imminent threat to marine organisms around the world, from individual species to global biodiversity, acidification has been a hot topic, peaking the interest of scientists and (some) policy makers alike. Although disparately necessary, a global policy to address the threat of OA is lacking. Consequently, a disconnect exists between regions around the world, with some taking notice and action more than others. Although the United States has begun to lead the way in OA research and mitigation (along with numerous countries in Europe), it is quite clear that the Canadian Federal Government and associated policy makers are drastically lagging when it comes to acting on OA, a detrimental environmental issue the requires immediate attention. As a result, research into OA in Canada is drastically hindered and negative instances such as those at Island Scallops aren’t likely to be prevented for quite some time to come.
Feely RA et al. 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Nature, 320, 1490-1492.
Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program 2009. ocean acidification: Recommended strategy for a U.S. national research program [online]. Accessed 01/12/2014 from http://www.us-ocb.org/publications/OCB_OA_Whitepaper.pdf.
National Research Council 2010. Ocean acidification: A national strategy to meet the challenges of a changing ocean [online]. Accessed 01/12/2014 from http://hofmannlab.msi.ucsb. edu/resources/OA_A%20National%20Strategy%20to%20Meet%20the%20Challenges%20of%20a%20Changing%20Ocean.pdf.
Bednaršek N et al. 2014. Limacina helicina shell dissolution as an indicator of declining habitat suitability owing to ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem. Proc R Soc B, 281, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0123.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2014. Canada’s state of the oceans report, 2012 [online]. Accessed 01/12/2014 from http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/coe-cde/soto/report-rapport-2012/index-eng.asp#a2.
Interagency Working Group on Ocean Acidification 2014. Strategic plan for federal research and monitoring of ocean acidification [online]. Accessed 01/12/2014 from http://www.whitehouse. gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/NSTC/iwg-oa_strategic_plan_march_2014.pdf.
Warren FJ & Lemmen DS 2014. Canada in a changing climate: Sector perspectives on impacts and adaptation. Government of Canada, Ottawa, 286pp.